The Philippine Army

Chapel where katipuneros were sworn in

The Philippine Army: From “Katipuneros” to “Soldiers” The Katipunan or KKK was founded by Filipino rebels in Manila on July 7, 1892 (Long name: Kataas-taasang Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan or �Supreme and Venerable Society of the Children of the Nation”). The founders —all freemasons— were: Andres Bonifacio, Ladislao Diwa, Teodoro Plata, Deodato Arellano, … Read more

The Last Holdouts

Vicente Lukban and staff Pall Mall Mag 1902

The Last Holdouts: General Vicente Lukban falls, Feb. 18, 1902 General Vicente Lukban commanded Filipino guerilla forces on Samar and Leyte islands in the eastern Visayas, central Philippines. On Feb. 18, 1902, he was captured by a scouting party composed of Americans and Filipinos commanded by 1Lt. Alphonse Strebler of Company 39, … Read more

Stalling Moro Resistance

Sultan Jamal ul-kiram

Stalling Moro Resistance: The Bates Treaty and the Sultan of Sulu, Aug. 20, 1899 The Muslim Moros are a multilingual ethnic group that comprised about 5.25% of the total Philippine population in 2005. Their name originated from the Spanish word Moor, and they mostly live in the western part of Mindanao Island, … Read more

Spanish holdouts

Baler Battle Map

June 2, 1899: Last Spanish holdouts surrender in Baler Fifty-three Spanish soldiers and 4 officers staked out at the Baler Church, Baler, Nueva Ecija Province, from June 28, 1898 to June 2, 1899 (Baler is now the capital town of Aurora Province; it is 140 miles, about 225 kilometers, due north of … Read more

Spanish Courts of Law

Filipino Spanish court judges 1899

General Otis Unsuspends Spanish-legacy Courts of Law, May 29, 1899 The oath-taking ceremony was performed on June 5, 1899. Standing are Manuel Araullo, Florentino Torres, Gregorio Araneta, Cayetano Arellano, and Captain William E. Birkhimer. Seated are Colonel Enoch H. Crowder and Major Richard W. Young � Colonel Crowder sits, legs crossed, to … Read more

South of Manila Campaign

1899 us troops at las pinas

South of Manila Campaign: Battle of Las Pi�as and Para�aque, June 10, 1899 A force of 4,500 American troops assembled on June 10, 1899 at San Pedro de Macati to conduct a campaign south of Manila to sweep the country between Manila Bay and Laguna Lake. They were commanded by Maj. Gen. … Read more

Second Battle of Manila

Section of Battery D, 6th US Artillery, on outpost duty near Fort San Antonio de Abad in Malate district, Manila, Feb 21, 1899

Second Battle of Manila, Feb. 22-23, 1899 After pushing back the Filipino lines in the first battle of Manila and the suburbs on Feb. 4-10, 1899, Maj. Gen. Elwell S. Otis waited for more reinforcements from the United States. Aguinaldo used the lull to reorganize and discuss plans for taking Manila. The … Read more

Philippine Independence

1898 june 12 proclamation of philippine independence in kawit, cavite

June 12, 1898: Declaration of Philippine Independence On June 12, 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Filipinos and the birth of the Philippine Republic �under the protection of the mighty and humane North American Union.�. This momentous event took place in Cavite el Viejo (“Old Cavite”, now Kawit), Cavite Province. … Read more

Mock Battle of Manila

Peace Protocol Signing at Washington DC Aug 12 1898

Aug. 13, 1898: Mock Battle of Manila The mock battle of Manila was staged on August 13. At 7:30 a.m., with American and Spanish commanders unaware that a peace protocol had been signed between their governments a few hours earlier, the battle for Manila commenced. Admiral Dewey had cut the only cable … Read more