Filipinos Negotiate

May 22-23, 1899: Filipinos negotiate with the Schurman Commission

The Anaconda Standard, Anaconda, Montana, issue of Aug. 29, 1899, page 15.

With the Philippine army unable to contain the American offensive, President Emilio Aguinaldo created a peace commission to negotiate an armistice. He appointed 23-year-old General Gregorio del Pilar to head the Filipino panel, with Captain Lorenzo Zialcita, Alberto Barretto and Gracio Gonzaga as members.

Schurman Commission on May 19-20 1899 L-R Schurman, Denby, Worcester, MacArthur
The members of the Schurman Commission, left to right: Jacob Schurman (Chairman), Charles Denby, Dean C. Worcester, and John MacArthur (Secretary).

Gregorio del Pilar panel negotiates, SLH May 22 1899

Gregorio del Pilar peace panel, SLH May 22 1899

Aguinaldo not ready for peace, SFC May 24 1899

Aguinaldo not ready, text, SFC May 24 1899

The armistice sought by the Filipinos was rejected. The American panel insisted on the recognition of United States sovereignty which the Filipinos understood to mean the unconditional surrender of the Filipino army.

Filipino envoys depart Manila, The Evening Times, May 25 1899

Pertinent question

Ten days later, on June 2, Pedro Paterno, the head of Aguinaldo’s cabinet, issued a manifesto recognizing the futility of the peace efforts with the Americans and exhorted all Filipinos to continue the struggle: “To war, then, beloved brothers, to war.”

House occupied by First Philippine Commission at Malate, Manila 1900
House occupied by the US First Philippine Commission (aka Schurman Commission) at Malate district, Manila. Photo was taken in 1900.
U.S. Philippines Commission House, Manila, ca. 1901-1902
Living room of the house occupied by the US First Philippine Commission