Aguinaldo In Later Years: 1902-1964

During the American occupation through 1946, Aguinaldo continued to pursue his goal of a free and independent Philippines. He supported groups that advocated immediate independence, and helped veterans of the struggle.

Aguinaldo and family ca early 1900s
Early 1900’s: Aguinaldo with family
Aguinaldo,son,brother,mother,sister in 1905
1905: Aguinaldo with 3-year-old son Emilio Jr., brother, mother, and sister.
Aguinaldo with his son Emilio Jr 1906
1906: Aguinaldo with his son, Emilio Jr.

Aguinaldo and his 2 children in Hupmobile Auto near his Cavite home 1911

Aguinaldo and two of his children in a world-touring Hupmobile auto near their home in Kawit, Cavite Province. Photo taken in early 1911 . In mid-December 1910, three Americans set off on an around-the-world journey by automobile. The trip was intended to publicize the durability of the Hupmobile and help stimulate export sales. The men toured Hawaii, Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania and spent five weeks driving through the Philippines. They pushed on to Japan, China, India, Egypt, Italy, Germany, France, England, and Ireland. They returned to New York in time for the 1912 auto show. In the end, the Hupmobile was driven 41,000 miles and transported by steamship another 28,000.

Aguinaldo and party in Manila, March 12 1913_opt

Emilio Aguinaldo n Educ Sec Frank L Crone in DC Worcester book 1914 Past n Present
General Emilio Aguinaldo standing with Secretary of Education Frank L. Crone beside a field of corn raised by Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr., in a school contest. Photo was taken in 1914.
Veteranos de la revolucion certificate Dec 22 1922 with Aguinaldo signature
A certificate of membership in the Asociacion de los Veteranos de la Revolucion, signed and issued by Aguinaldo to Captain Leandro Limjoco on Dec. 22, 1922.

Aguinaldo in 1914In 1912, Aguinaldo (LEFT, IN 1914 PHOTO) organized the Asociacion de los Veteranos de la Revolucion (Association of Veterans of the Revolution).

He allowed his cousin, Baldomero Aguinaldo, to become its first president.

The Asociacion secured pensions for its members and made arrangements for them to buy land on installment from the government.

Aguinaldo himself acquired possession of 1,050 hectares of choice friar lands in Imus, Cavite Province, under a lease with an option to purchase; he ended up buying 300 hectares.

Carmen Aguinaldo and Princess Tarhata of Sulu, NY Tribune page 4, Sept 7 1919
New York Tribune, page 4, Sept. 7, 1919. The caption says Carmen Aguinaldo (RIGHT) is the “daughter of the former Filipino bandit-“.

On March 6, 1921, Aguinaldo’s first wife, Hilaria, died.

Aguinaldo_in_US_04181922_opt
Issue of April 18, 1922.
Emilio Aguinaldo Jr and Frederick Funston at West Point
Frederick Funston, Jr., son of the general, shakes hands with Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr., son of the first Philippine President, at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York. They entered the academy at the same time, on July 2, 1923. The junior Aguinaldo did not graduate, according to Col. Clarence E. Endy, in his “USMA Foreign Cadet Program —A Case Study”, at http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA100220&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
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Aguinaldo with Governor-General Leonard Wood, The Literary Digest, Aug. 4, 1923.
Aguinaldo and Leonard Wood, 4th of July celebration, 1924_opt
Aguinaldo with Governor-General Leonard Wood, July 4th celebration, 1924
Aguinaldo 10 delegates Malolos Congress reunion Dec 8 1929
Dec. 8, 1929: Aguinaldo at a reunion with 10 delegates to the Malolos Congress (September 1898) at Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan Province.
Aguinaldo Maria Agoncillo wedding July 14 1930
Wedding photo of Emilio Aguinaldo and Maria Agoncillo, July 14, 1930

On July 14, 1930, at age 61, Aguinaldo married Maria Agoncillo, 49, niece of Felipe Agoncillo, the pioneer Filipino diplomat.

Emilio Aguinaldo wife Maria Agoncillo 49 yrs honeymoon Baguio July 1930
July 1930: Aguinaldo and his second wife, Maria Agoncillo, on their honeymoon at Baguio City
Emilio Aguinaldo and American actor Douglas Fairbanks at his Cavite home March 26 1931
March 26, 1931: American actor Douglas Fairbanks visiting the 62-year-old Aguinaldo at his home in Kawit, Cavite Province

[In its July 6, 1931 issue, the Time Magazine commented on Aguinaldo: “Until General Frederick Funston captured the insurrectionary chief 30 years ago in the steamy jungles of the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo was a bloody name with which to frighten U. S. children after dark.”]

Philippine Politicians Posing with Their General Emilio Aguinaldo
Governor-General Frank Murphy and Senate president Manuel Quezon visiting Aguinaldo at his home in Kawit, Cavite Province, Sept. 13, 1933
Aguinaldo combo pic pilot 1934 speech 1935
Aguinaldo posing as a fighter pilot in 1934 and delivering a speech in 1935.
Philippine Commonwealth inauguration 1935
Nov. 15, 1935: Inauguration of the Philippine Commonwealth and oathtaking of Manuel L. Quezon as President, Legislative Building, Manila

In 1935, when the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established in preparation for Philippine independence, he ran for president but decisively lost the election to fiery Spanish mestizo Manuel L. Quezon. Aguinaldo protested his defeat.

1941 June Aguinaldo and Quezon
Emilio Aguinaldo (then 72 years old) and Philippine Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon. Photo taken on June 12, 1941

The two leaders formally reconciled in 1941, when Quezon moved Flag Day to June 12, to commemorate the proclamation of Philippine independence.

LOS ANGELES TIMES, FEB 7 1942 AGUINALDO USED IN QUISLING ROLE
The Los Angeles Times, issue of Feb. 7, 1942, reports on Aguinaldo’s alleged collaboration with the Japanese

During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II (1942-1945), Aguinaldo was used by the Japanese as an anti-American tool, forced to make speeches, sign articles, and make infamous radio addresses in support of the Japanese including a radio appeal to Gen. Douglas MacArthur on Feb. 6, 1942 to surrender in order to spare the flower of Filipino youth.

Aguinaldo in LIFE Mag Feb 16, 1942

Copy of Jose Laurel Speech Philippines WWII 1943
Oct. 14, 1943: President Jose P. Laurel delivering a speech during the inauguration of the Japanese-sponsored “Second Republic of the Philippines”. [Japanese Press Photo].
On Oct 14, 1943, he and Gen. Artemio Ricarte raised the Filipino flag during the inauguration of the Japanese-sponsored “Second Philippine Republic”.

Aguinaldo at Jose Laurel inauguration Oct 14 1943
Oct. 14, 1943: Aguinaldo (EXTREME LEFT) listens as President Jose P. Laurel delivers a speech during the inauguration of the Japanese-sponsored “Second Republic of the Philippines”. [Japanese Press Photo].
Tribune Aguinaldo made manager of Nadisco June 29 1944
The Japanese-controlled The Tribune, issue of June 29, 1944, announces the appointment of 75-year-old Emilio Aguinaldo as Manager of the National Distribution Corporation (NADISCO). He was tasked with rationing prime commodities.

After the Americans retook the Philippines in 1945, Aguinaldo was arrested and accused of collaboration with the Japanese. He was held in Bilibid prison for months until released by presidential amnesty from President Manuel Roxas. In his trial, it was determined that his broadcasts and cooperation were made under great duress (the Japanese had threatened to murder his entire family), and his name was cleared.

Independence Day July 4 1946

Official Program Phil Ind July 4 1946Aguinaldo lived to see his lifelong goal of independence for his nation achieved on July 4, 1946 (ABOVE), when the United States Government marked the full restoration and recognition of Philippine independence. (LEFT, Official program for the July 4, 1946 Independence Day ceremonies at the Luneta).

General Douglas MacArthur politely shook hands with 77-year-old Aguinaldo, who, for independence, fought MacArthur’s father in 1899.

During the independence parade at the Luneta, Aguinaldo carried the flag he said was the one he raised in Kawit on June 12, 1898, the date he believed to be the true Independence Day.

However, 21 years earlier, on June 11, 1925, in his letter to Capt. Emmanuel Baja, Aguinaldo mentioned that in their Northward retreat during the Filipino-American War, the original flag was lost somewhere in Tayug, Pangasinan Province; the Americans captured the town on Nov. 11, 1899.

Emilio Aguinaldo at Manuel Roxas funeral April 25, 1948
April 25, 1948: President Aguinaldo with veterans of the Revolution at the funeral of President Manuel Roxas.
Aguinaldo, Thomas H. Lockett and Pres. Elpidio Quirino _opt
Thomas H. Lockett, charg d’affaires of the US embassy at Manila, Aguinaldo, and President Elpidio Quirino,1948.
Emilio Aguinaldo in Time Life Editorial Oct 1 1949
Aguinaldo, aged 80, in photo published in Time-Life Illustrated Magazine, issue of Oct. 1, 1949

In 1950, as a token vindication of his honor, President Elpidio Quirino appointed Aguinaldo as a member of the Council of State, where he served a full term. He returned to retirement soon after, dedicating his time and attention to veteran soldiers’ interests and welfare, and the promotion of nationalism and democracy in the Philippines.

Aguinaldo with Asociacion de los veteranos de la revolucion 1955
1955: Aguinaldo, age 86, at a reunion with members of the Asociacion de los Veteranos de la Revolucion.

Pres. Ramon Magsaysay and Emilio Aguinaldo at Barasoain, Malolos, Sept 15 1956_optPresident Ramon Magsaysay and Aguinaldo celebrating the 58th anniversary of the Malolos Congress, Sept. 15, 1956. Magsaysay, the 7th Philippine President, died six months later in a plane crash on March 17, 1957. He was a renowned guerilla leader during World War II, and as president was known for his unscrupulous honesty and integrity.President Carlos P. Garcia, left, with Aguinaldo. Garcia assumed the presidency upon Magsaysay’s death and served from 1957 to 1961.

Emilio Aguinaldo n wife Maria Agoncillo late 1950s
Late 1950s: Aguinaldo and wife Maria Agoncillo.
Emilio Aguinaldo July 16 1961
Emilio Aguinaldo, at age 92. Photo taken on July 16, 1961.

Diosdado Macapagal in 1962On May 9, 1962, the US House of Representatives rejected Philippine claims for an additional $73 million payment for the destruction wrought by American forces in World War II. In retaliation, President Diosdado Macapagal (LEFT, in 1962) changed the celebration of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. Aguinaldo regarded this as the greatest victory of the Revolution of 1896. He rose from his sickbed to attend the celebration of independence 64 years after he declared it.

Macapagal recalled, “While we were seated at the grandstand during the ceremonies, General Aguinaldo thanked me again for the rectification of an erroneous historical practice and then asked: ‘When will there be an Aguinaldo monument at the Luneta like that of Rizal?’ I could not answer the question. The next generation might have the answer.” [Aguinaldo’s personal responsibility in the execution of Katipunan Supremo Andres Bonifacio and the assassination of Gen. Antonio Luna is still controversial].

Phil Independence celebration with Aguinaldo and Pres Diosdado Macapagal June 12, 1962_opt
President Diosdado Macapagal and 93-year-old Emilio Aguinaldo (attended by a nurse) celebrating Philippine independence at the Aguinaldo Mansion in Kawit, Cavite Province, June 12, 1962.
Aguinaldo and wife with Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko during WWII
Emilio Aguinaldo and wife greeting Japanese royalty, Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko, on the porch of their home in Kawit, Cavite Province, 1962.
Aguinaldo colored trio
Aguinaldo at age 94. Photos published in Life Magazine, issue of Jan. 10, 1964. He outlived all of the 30 American generals that saw action in the Philippine-American War.

Death of Emilio Aguinaldo

On Feb. 6, 1964, less than a year after the death of his second wife, Aguinaldo died of coronary thrombosis, at the age of 95, at the Veterans Memorial Hospital in Quezon City.

Aguinaldo Shrine

His remains are buried at the Aguinaldo Shrine (ABOVE) in Kawit, Cavite Province.