Philippine Independence

1898 june 12 proclamation of philippine independence in kawit, cavite

June 12, 1898: Declaration of Philippine Independence On June 12, 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Filipinos and the birth of the Philippine Republic �under the protection of the mighty and humane North American Union.�. This momentous event took place in Cavite el Viejo (“Old Cavite”, now Kawit), Cavite Province. … Read more

Mock Battle of Manila

Peace Protocol Signing at Washington DC Aug 12 1898

Aug. 13, 1898: Mock Battle of Manila The mock battle of Manila was staged on August 13. At 7:30 a.m., with American and Spanish commanders unaware that a peace protocol had been signed between their governments a few hours earlier, the battle for Manila commenced. Admiral Dewey had cut the only cable … Read more

Combat in Manila Suburbs

Map of district between Manila and Laguna de Bay 1899

Combats between Manila and Lake Laguna de Bay With fresh troops from the U.S. mainland, Maj. Gen. Elwell S. Otis ordered the clearing of the country between Manila and Lake Laguna de Bay, and a push to the north and capture Aguinaldo. He believed that this move will stretch a line of … Read more

Malolos Congress

Filipino soldiers in Malolos Sept 15 1898

Sept. 15, 1898: The Malolos Congress Following the declaration of independence from Spain on June 12, 1898 by the Revolutionary Government, a congress was opened in Malolos, Bulacan Province on Sept. 15, 1898 to draw up a constitution for the First Philippine Republic. The basilica at Barasoain was filled with delegates and … Read more

Mabini is Captured, 1899

Mabini captured, Wichita Daily Eagle Dec 14 1899

Dec. 10, 1899: Apolinario Mabini Is Captured When the Filipino-American war broke out and Aguinaldo’s government became disorganized, the paralytic Apolinario Mabini, who headed Aguinaldo’s cabinet until May 7, 1899, when he was replaced by Pedro Paterno, fled to Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija Province, carried in a hammock. He was captured there by … Read more

Luna Assassination

Antonio Luna birthplace photo taken Oct 29 2008

June 5, 1899: Assassination of Gen. Antonio Luna Gen. Antonio Luna (LEFT, in 1898) was born in Urbiztondo, Binondo district, Manila on Oct. 29, 1866. He was the youngest of seven children of Ilocano parents; his father, Joaqu�n Luna, hailed from Badoc, Ilocos Norte Province, and his mother, Spanish mestiza Laureana Novicio, … Read more

Lawton’s Lake Expedition

General Henry Lawton beside horse 1899

April 9-12, 1899: Lawton’s Lake Laguna de Bay Expedition After the capture of Malolos, the U.S. 2nd Division under Maj. Gen. Henry W. Lawton was sent by Maj. Gen. Elwell S. Otis to the south into Laguna province, via Lake Laguna de Bay, to take the Filipino stronghold located in Santa Cruz, … Read more

“Ilustrados” Collaborate

Ilustrado collaborators_edited

The Schurman Commission and “Ilustrado” Collaborators, July 24, 1899 When Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence on June 12, 1898, he appointed Filipino “ilustrados” (men from the upper social classes) to draft the Philippine Constitution in the Malolos Congress. The constitution they crafted was intended to show the Americans that Filipinos were fully … Read more

Ilocos and Cagayan, 1899

US soldiers and pottery maker circa 1900 in Samuel BM Young collection

Nov. 26 – Dec. 17, 1899: Americans Invade the Ilocos When the Philippine-American War broke out on Feb. 4, 1899, General Manuel Tinio, military governor of the Ilocos provinces and commanding general of all Filipino forces in Northern Luzon, had 1,904 men (the “Tinio Brigade” ), consisting of 68 officers, 1,106 riflemen, 200 sandatahanes or … Read more

Guerilla Warfare, 1899

Americans surround Aguinaldo, SLH Nov 14 1899

Nov. 12, 1899: Aguinaldo shifts to Guerilla Warfare By the closing months of 1899, the army of the Philippine Republic was no longer a regular fighting force. President Emilio Aguinaldo himself was under siege in Pangasinan Province from three pursuing American generals, from the north by Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton, from the … Read more